Constellaria teres

Phylum: Bryozoa
Class: Stenolaemata
Order: Cystoporata
Genus: Constellaria
Species: Constellaria teres (Hayes & Ulrich, 1903)

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  • 1903 Constellaria teres Hayes and Ulrich, plate 40, figures 1-3; plate 40, 41.
  • 1903 Constellaria teres Hayes and Ulrich, fig. 31.
  • 1904 Constellaria teres Ulrich and Bassler, pl. 37.
  • 1904 Constellaria teres McFarlan, p. 100, pl. 4, fig. 12.
  • 1949 ?Constellaria teres Hayes and Ulrich, pl. 13, fig. 3, 4.
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    Stratigraphic Occurrences

    C. teres_strat

    Geographic Occurrences

    Map point data provided by iDigBio.
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    Sequences (Formations)

    • C1 Sequence (Clays Ferry/Kope, Lexington/Point Pleasant)

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    Identification in Hand Sample
    C. teres_diag

    • Zoarium Morphology: Erect, flattened branches or fronds (frondose)
    • Zoecia: polygonal
    • Mesozooids: More numerous in maculae
    • Monticules: Surface with depressed stellate (star-shaped) maculae
    • Spaces between rays elevated and occupied by rows of close apertures

    Diagnosis: Differs from C. florida having more cylindrical stems which bifurcate at regular intervals (McFarlan, 1931)

    Constellaria teres from the Woodburn (Trenton) Formation of Frankfort, Kentucky (CMC 18105)

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    McFarlan, (1931):

    • (Genus description) Dendroid or frondescent zooaria with depressed stellate maculae.McFarlan, 1931: C. teres: rigid cylindircal to sub-cylindrical stems, bifurcating at regular intervals.

    Karklins (1984):

    • Zoaria dendroid, having cylindrical to subcylindrical, occasionally flattened, commonly anastomosing branches and conspecific overgrowth. Zoaria rarely encrusting. In endozones, autozooecia subparallel to branch axis, polygonal, generally three- to five-sided in cross section, curving abruptly, occasionally gradually, outward in late endozones or early exozones. Autozooecial walls straight to slightly sinuous. Basal diaphragms common to absent, planar to slightly curved, occurring at right or slightly oblique angles to chamber axis; commonly evenly spaced, occasionally occurring irregularly or lacking altogether in endozones of some zoaria. Zones of rejuvenation of autozooecia common, occurring irregularly. In exozones, autozooecia almost at right angles to zoarial surface, subcircular to circular in cross section, with straight to slightly sinuous walls. Autozooecial boundaries generally distinct, locally not visible in autozooecia near centers of stellate maculae. Basal diaphragms generally common throughout exozones, planar to slightly curved, slightly oblique or at right angles to chamber axis. Basal diaphragms evenly spaced in some autozooecia, occurring irregularly or absent altogether in others. In interstellar macular areas, autozooecia occurring without preferred alignment, separated almost completely by vesicular deposits, usually in clusters of three to four. Clustered autozooecia partly contiguous, separated partly by vesicular deposits. Stellate maculae abundant, relatively small, generally regular in shape, low or slightly raised, occurring irregularly over zoarial surface, coalescing locally. Stellate maculae made up of autozooecia clustered in an average of five to seven rays and small areas of vesicular deposits in centers of maculae. Ray clusters of autozooecia generally well defined, slightly wider outward from centers of maculae, separated by strips of narrow vesicular deposits. Ray clusters formed of approximately 8-25
      autozooecia, rarely more than 30. Autozooecia in ray clusters contiguous to partly contiguous, separated by vesicular deposits. Ray clusters commonly subdivided by indistinct partitions longitudinally; midray partitions lacking in rays of some maculae. Autozooecial chambers subcircular to circular in cross section. Vesicular deposits abundant, occurring in centers of stellate maculae, between rays of maculae in narrow strips, locally irregular in width; partly separating autozooecia in ray clusters of maculae and in interstellar macular areas. Vesicles generally of medium size, irregularly polygonal in cross section, generally rectangular in profile or having curved walls; walls of vesicles commonly thickened in late exozones; chambers of vesicles partly or almost completely filled by laminate skeletal deposits in late exozones of many zoaria. Styles abundant in exozones of many zoaria, sparse to absent in others. Styles generally irregular in size and shape, occasionally extending into patches of irregular shape. Styles generally occurring in walls of autozooecia in interstellar macular areas, sparingly or not at all in autozooecia in ray clusters. Styles common in walls of vesicles in centers of maculae, projecting occasionally into vesicles. Nonlaminate skeletal deposits (yellow tissue of authors) abundant, irregularly occurring throughout exozones as styles and stylelike deposits, forming indistinct midray partitions and locally surrounding autozooecia clustered in rays; occurring irregularly in autozooecial walls in interstellar macular areas.