Phylum: Brachiopoda
Class: Craniata
Order: Craniida (Waagen, 1885)
Cincinnatian Families: Craniidae

Geologic Range
Ordovician – Holocene

Common Paleoecology
Craniida is an extinct order of stationary, epifaunal suspension feeders.

Characteristics of the Order

  • Calcified dorsal valve
  • Punctate
  • Shell growth generally holoperipheral, rarely mixoperipheral
  • Ventral valve convex or encrusting
  • Dorsal valve convex to subconical

Published Descriptions

Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Vol. 2 (2000):

  • Dorsal valve invariably calcified, punctuate; ventral valve in some taxa without secondary shell or
    entirely periostracal; mantle setae present in recent forms; shell growth generally holoperipheral, rarely
    mixoperipheral; dorsal valve convex to subconical, ventral valve plane to convex or encrusting; dorsal
    body wall of recent forms attached to dorsal valve in five separate areas; attachment scars of dorsal
    internal oblique muscles situated posterolaterally; mantle canal system pinnate, only rarely with vascula