Colony Growth Forms

Morphology (or Growth habit): the basic  form or shape in which the colony grows

  Ramose (Dendroid, branching): Erect, circular cross-section, frequent and often regular branching from base (dendritic, like the growth of a tree).

Cincinnatian Examples: Parvohallopora ramosa, Batostoma jamesi

  Frondose (Leaf-like): Erect, flattened cross-section, branches flattened into leaf-like shapes.

Cincinnatian Examples: Homotrypa flabellaris, Heterotrypa parvulipora

  Anastomosing: Branching erect colony which branches join and re-branch to form open network.

Cincinnatian Example: Heterotrypa frondosa

Bifoliate: Erect, flattened, with zooids that bud back-to-back.

Cincinnatian Example: Peronopora vera

  Fenestrate: Erect colony which branches in a reticulate pattern.

Cincinnatian Example: Fenestella granulosa

  Encrusting: Colony growing attached to a hard surface or other organisms’ shells.

Cincinnatian Examples: Corynotrypa inflata, Cuffeyella arachnoidea, Atactoporella schucherti

  Hemispherical  (or Discoidal): Roughly hemispherical or dome shaped.  Discoidal resembles a flattened hemishere, or a disc. May also resemble a “Chocolate Drop”.

Cincinnatian Examples: Cyphotrypa clarksvillensis, Prasopora simulatrix, Aspidopora newberryi

  Massive: Colony of irregular shape.

Cincinnatian Example: Monticulipora molesta